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12C: IN DATABASE ARCHIVING

In this post, I will demonstrate a new feature introduced in 12c : In database archiving. It enables you to archive rows within a table by marking them as invisible. This is accomplshed  by means of a hidden column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE. These invisible rows are not visible to the queries but if needed, can be viewed , by setting a session parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY.

Overview:

-- Create test user uilm, tablespace ilmtbs
-- Connect as user uilm
-- create and populate test table (5 rows) ilmtab with row archival clause
-- Note that the table has an additional column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE automatically created   and has the default value of 0 (indicates that row is active)
-- Note that this column is not visible when we describe the table or simply issue select * from ...
-- We need to access data dictionary to view the column
-- Make two  rows in the table inactive by setting ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE column to a non zero value.
-- Check that inactive rows are not visible to query
-- Set the parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = all to see inactive rows also
-- Set the parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = active to hide inactive rows
-- Issue an insert into ... select * and check that only 3 visible rows are inserted
-- Set the parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = all to see inactive rows also
-- Issue an insert into ... select * and check that all the rows are inserted but ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE    is not propagated in inserted rows
-- Disable row archiving in the table and check that column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE is automatically dropped
-- drop tablespace ilmtbs and user uilm

Implementation :

-- Create test user, tablespace and test table
SQL> conn sys/oracle@em12c:1523/pdb1 as sysdba
sho con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1

SQL> set sqlprompt PDB1>

PDB1>create tablespace ilmtbs datafile '/u02/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/ilmtbs01.dbf' size 1m;
grant connect, resource, dba  to uilm identified by oracle;
alter user uilm default tablespace ilmtbs;

conn uilm/oracle@em12c:1523/pdb1
sho con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
-- create table with "row archival clause"
PDB1>drop table ilmtab purge;
create table ilmtab (id number, txt char(15)) row archival;
insert into ilmtab values (1, 'one');
insert into ilmtab values (2, 'two');
insert into ilmtab values (3, 'three');
insert into ilmtab values (4, 'four');
insert into ilmtab values (5, 'five');
commit;
-- Note that the table has an additional column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE automatically created    and has the default value of 0 (indicates that row is active)
PDB1>col ora_archive_state for a20
select id, txt, ora_archive_state from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
1 one             0
2 two             0
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
-- Note that this column is not visible when we describe the table or simply issue select * from ...
PDB1>desc ilmtab
Name                                      Null?    Type
----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
ID                                                 NUMBER
TXT                                                CHAR(15)

PDB1>select * from ilmtab;

ID TXT
---------- ---------------
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
-- Since the column is invisible, let me try and make it visible
-- Note that Since the column is maintained by oracle itself, user can't modify its attributes
PDB1>alter table ilmtab modify (ora_archive_state visible);
alter table ilmtab modify (ora_archive_state visible)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-38398: DDL not allowed on the system ILM column
-- We need to access data dictionary to view the column
-- Note that this column is shown as hidden and has not been generated by user
PDB1>col hidden for a7
col USER_GENERATED for 20
col USER_GENERATED for a20

select TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME, HIDDEN_COLUMN, USER_GENERATED
from user_tab_cols where table_name='ILMTAB';

TABLE_NAME  COLUMN_NAME          HID USER_GENERATED
----------- -------------------- --- --------------------
ILMTAB      ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE    YES NO
ILMTAB      ID                   NO  YES
ILMTAB      TXT                  NO  YES
-- We can make selected rows in the table inactive by setting ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE column to a non zero value.
This can be accomplished using update table... set ORA_ACRHIVE_STATE =
. <non-zero value>
. dbms_ilm.archivestatename(1)

-- Let's update row with id =1 with ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE=2
     and update row with id =2 with dbms_ilm.archivestatename(2)
PDB1>update ilmtab set ora_archive_state=2 where id=1;

update ilmtab set ora_archive_state= dbms_ilm.archivestatename(2) where id=2;
-- Let's check whether updates have been successful and hidden rows are not visible
PDB1>select id, txt, ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
-- The updated rows are not visible!!
-- Quite logical since we have made the rows active and by default only active rows are visible

-- To see inactive rows also, we need to set the parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = all at session level
-- Note that the column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE has been set to 1 for id =2 although we had set it to 2 using
dbms_ilm.archivestatename(2)
PDB1>alter session set ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = all;
select id, txt, ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
1 one             2
2 two             1
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
-- Note that the column ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE has been set to 1 for id =2 although we had set it to 2 using    dbms_ilm.archivestatename(2)

-- Let's find out why
-- Note that The function dbms_ilm.archivestatename(n) returns only two values    0 for n=0 and 1 for  n <> 0
PDB1>col state0 for a8
col state1 for a8
col state2 for a8
col state3 for a8

select dbms_ilm.archivestatename(0) state0 ,dbms_ilm.archivestatename(1) state1,
dbms_ilm.archivestatename(2) state2,dbms_ilm.archivestatename(3) state3  from dual;

STATE0   STATE1   STATE2   STATE3
-------- -------- -------- --------
0        1        1        1
-- In order to make the inactive rows (id=1,2) hidden again, we need to set the parameter ROW ARCHIVAL VISIBILITY  = Active
PDB1>alter session set row archival visibility = active;
select id, txt, ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
-- Let's issue an insert into ... select *
-- Note that only 3 new rows are visible
PDB1>insert into ilmtab select * from ilmtab;

select id, txt, ora_archive_state from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0

6 rows selected.
-- I want to check if hidden rows were also inserted
-- Let's check by making  hidden rows visible again
-- Note that only visible rows(id=3,4,5) were inserted
PDB1>alter session set row archival visibility=all;
select id, txt, ora_archive_state from ilmtab;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
1 one             2
2 two             1
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0
3 three           0
4 four            0
5 five            0

8 rows selected.
-- Let's set row archival visibility = all and then again insert rows from ilmtab
-- Note that all the 8 rows are inserted but ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE ha not been copied    ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE <> 0 in only 2 records (id = 1,2) even now.
PDB1>alter session set row archival visibility=all;
insert into ilmtab select * from ilmtab;
select id, txt, ora_archive_state from ilmtab order by id;

ID TXT             ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE
---------- --------------- --------------------
1 one             0
1 one             2
2 two             0
2 two             1
3 three           0
3 three           0
3 three           0
3 three           0
4 four            0
4 four            0
4 four            0
4 four            0
5 five            0
5 five            0
5 five            0
5 five            0

16 rows selected.
-- Disable row level archiving for the table
-- Note that as soon as row archiving is disabled, pseudo column ora_archive_state is dropped automatically
PDB1>alter table ilmtab no row archival;
select id, txt, ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE from ilmtab;

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00904: "ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE": invalid identifier

PDB1>col hidden for a7
col USER_GENERATED for 20
col USER_GENERATED for a20

select TABLE_NAME, COLUMN_NAME, HIDDEN_COLUMN, USER_GENERATED
from user_tab_cols where table_name='ILMTAB';

TABLE_NAME  COLUMN_NAME          HID USER_GENERATED
----------- -------------------- --- --------------------
ILMTAB      ID                   NO  YES
ILMTAB      TXT                  NO  YES
Note : Had we created this table using sys, we could not have disabled row archiving .

-- cleanup --
PDB1>conn sys/oracle@em12c:1523/pdb1 as sysdba
drop tablespace ilmtbs including contents and datafiles;
drop user uilm cascade;
References:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E16655_01/server.121/e17613/part_lifecycle.htm#VLDBG14154

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Oracle 12c Index

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

in database archiving performance

I was looking at this as well. I see problems with performance unless you adjust the indexing strategy. See this:

orclz> alter table emp row archival;

Table altered.

orclz> set autot trace exp
orclz> select * from emp where empno=7788;

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2949544139

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation                   | Name   | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT            |        |     1 |    38 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID| EMP    |     1 |    38 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  2 |   INDEX UNIQUE SCAN         | PK_EMP |     1 |       |     0   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("EMP"."ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE"='0')
   2 - access("EMPNO"=7788)

orclz> select * from emp;

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 3956160932

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation         | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT  |      |     1 |    38 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|*  1 |  TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMP  |     1 |    38 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   1 - filter("EMP"."ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE"='0')

orclz>
You see the need for filters that cannot be accomplished with access?
Possibly all indexes need to include the ora_archive_state column, perhaps appended to primary and unique key indexes and prepended to other indexes. If you don't do this, you will find that many operations that could previously be completed without touching the table will require table scans:
orclz> set autot trace exp
orclz> select count(*) from emp;

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2937609675

-------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation        | Name   | Rows  | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
-------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT |        |     1 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE  |        |     1 |            |          |
|   2 |   INDEX FULL SCAN| PK_EMP |    13 |     1   (0)| 00:00:01 |
-------------------------------------------------------------------

orclz> alter table emp row archival;

Table altered.

orclz> select count(*) from emp;

Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2083865914

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation          | Name | Rows  | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time     |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT   |      |     1 |    38 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
|   1 |  SORT AGGREGATE    |      |     1 |    38 |            |          |
|*  2 |   TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMP  |     1 |    38 |     3   (0)| 00:00:01 |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Predicate Information (identified by operation id):
---------------------------------------------------

   2 - filter("EMP"."ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE"='0')

orclz>

--
John Watson
Oracle Certified Master DBA
http://skillbuiders.com

Performance issue with in-database archiving

If we include ORA_ARCHIVE_STATE in primary / unique key index , it could lead to constraint violation.
Pls refer to the following link:
http://oracleinaction.com/12c-performance-issue-database-archiving/

Regards
Anju Garg

In-database archiving performance issue: explained (again)

I have glanced at your post on that other site. You did not read my suggestion correctly. I said that you need to append the column to the index. You have appended it to the constraint.

I also noticed that you have not credited me with pointing out the problem and providing the solution. This is plagiarism.