Another video fresh off the press.
If videos aren’t your thing, you can always read the article the video is based on.
The star of this video is Kevin Closson. Kevin’s a really nice guy and has a brain the size of a planet, but you know somewhere in the back of his mind he’s wondering what it would be like to hunt you down, kill you and mount your head above his fireplace.
First, I am disappointed that Oracle does not go above and beyond to provide SQL scripts to create GoldenGate users for the database.
There are different set of privileges depending on the version of the database:
220.127.116.11 Oracle 18.104.22.168 or Earlier Database Privileges 22.214.171.124 Oracle 126.96.36.199 or Later Database Privileges
PDB is not being used and it’s different for PDB.
Depending on whether you want to practice the least principle privileges, ggadmin user can be create with privileges for both extract (capture) and replicat (apply).
Please don’t forget to change the password from the script since it is hard coded to be same as username :=)
-- 188.8.131.52 Oracle 184.108.40.206 or Later Database Privileges set echo on lines 200 pages 1000 trimspool on tab off define _username='GGADMIN' -- grant privileges for capture create user &_username identified by &_username default tablespace ggdata; select DEFAULT_TABLESPACE,TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE from dba_users where username='&_username'; grant create session, connect, resource, alter any table, alter system, dba, select any transaction to &_username; -- grant privileges for replicat grant create table, lock any table to &_username; -- grant both capture and apply exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username') -- grant capture -- exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username','capture'); -- grant apply -- exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username','apply');
oracle@arrow:tiger:/media/sf_working/ggs $ sysdba @cr_ggadmin_12c.sql SQL*Plus: Release 220.127.116.11.0 Production on Sat Apr 9 07:06:41 2016 Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved. Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 18.104.22.168.0 - 64bit Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> define _username='GGADMIN' ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- grant privileges for capture ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> create user &_username identified by &_username default tablespace ggdata; User created. ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> select DEFAULT_TABLESPACE,TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE from dba_users where username='&_username'; DEFAULT_TABLESPACE TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE ------------------------------ ------------------------------ GGDATA TEMP ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> grant create session, connect, resource, alter any table, alter system, dba, select any transaction to &_username; Grant succeeded. ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- grant privileges for replicat ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> grant create table, lock any table to &_username; Grant succeeded. ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- grant both capture and apply ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username') PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- grant capture ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username','capture'); ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- grant apply ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> -- exec dbms_goldengate_auth.grant_admin_privilege('&_username','apply'); ARROW:(SYS@tiger):PRIMARY> exit Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 22.214.171.124.0 - 64bit Production With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options oracle@arrow:tiger:/media/sf_working/ggs $
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We’re just two days away from the start of Collaborate and there are so many session I want to get to, my focus is on Financial Applications both Cloud and E-Business Suite. I already listed sessions where you can find me presenting, but here are ones I think will be interesting, I will attend as many as I can
Firstly two cloud customers(Alex Lee and Westmont Hotels) talking about their experiences implementing cloud financials.
Monday April 11th 12:45 PM–1:45 PM – South Seas J
Derrick Walters, Corporate Applications Manager at Alex Lee
How Westmont Hospitality Benefited by Leveraging Cloud ERP
3:15 PM–4:15 PMApr 11, 2016 – South Seas I
Sacha Agostini Oracle Functional Consultant at Vigilant Technologies, LLC.
Next some AGIS, Legal Entity and related topics on E-Business suite. In these areas that have been out for some time, I generally learn something about innovative uses of the products. Our partners and customers are very smart.
Intracompany, Intercompany, AGIS – Unraveling the Mysteries!
2:15 PM–3:15 PM Apr 10, 2016 – South Seas A
Bharati ManjeshwarMs at Highstreet IT Solutions, LLC
Thomas Simkiss Vice-President of Consulting at Denovo Ventures, LLC
Its Not too Late! How to Replace Your eBTax Solution After You Have Upgraded
10:30 AM–11:30 AM Apr 11, 2016 – South Seas I
Mr Andrew BohnetDirector ateBiz Answers Ltd
3:30 PM–4:30 PMApr 10, 2016 – Jasmine H
Bharati ManjeshwarMs at Highstreet IT Solutions, LLC Finally, there are sessions called Power Hours, which are strangely two hours, but i really like the experience last year and based on the fact they are back i assume others did too. they are not a traditional lecture format, they are more interactive and allow people to discuss their experiences and learn from each other. If you have not tried one, I highly recommend them. Here are a couple that jumped out at me Power Hour – Coexistence – On Premise and Cloud Together and In Harmony
3:15 PM–5:30 PM Apr 11, 2016 – Mandalay Bay C
Mohan Iyer Practice Director at Jade Global, Inc. Power Hour – eBTax Hacks – Your Questions Answered
9:15 AM–11:45 AM Apr 12, 2016 – Mandalay Bay C
Mr Andrew Bohnet Director at eBiz Answers Ltd Alexander Fiteni President at Fiteni Enterprises Inc Dev Singh Manager at KPMG LLP Canada Power Hour – Master Data Structures in EBS and Cloud
12:45 PM–3:00 PM Apr 11, 2016 – Mandalay Bay C
Mohan Iyer Practice Director at Jade Global, Inc.
We share our skills to maximize your revenue!
We publish a number of XML web services from the database using the PL/SQL web toolkit, as described here. In more recent times we’ve had a number of requirements for JSON web services, so we did what most people probably do and Googled for “json pl/sql” and got a link to PL/JSON.
I know about the support for JSON in 12c, but we are not on 12c for these projects and that’s more about consuming JSON, rather than publishing it.
People seemed reasonably happy with PL/JSON, so I thought no more about it. At the weekend, kind-of by accident, I came across the APEX_JSON package that comes as part of APEX 5 and thought, how could I have missed that?
This is not a slight against PL/JSON, but given the choice of using something built and supported by Oracle, that is already in the database (we have APEX 5 in most databases already) or loading something else, I tend to pick the Oracle method. Since then I’ve been having a play with APEX_JSON and I quite like it. Here’s what I wrote while I was playing with it.
If you have done anything with XML in PL/SQL, you should find it pretty simple.
I’m guessing this post will result in a few people saying, “What about ORDS?” Yes I know. Because of history we are still mostly using mod_plsql and OHS, but ORDS is on the horizon. Even so, we will probably continue to use APEX_JSON to do the donkey-work, and just use ORDS to front it.
Tim…Playing around with JSON using the APEX_JSON package was first posted on April 8, 2016 at 7:26 pm.
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Anyone interested in getting started in SQL server will need some databases to work with/on. This article hopes to help the new and future DBA/Developer get started with a few databases.
There are several places to get sample databases, but one starting out in SQL server should go to the Microsoft sample databases. The reason for this is that there are thousands of Blogs/Tutorials on the internet that use these databases as the basis for the tutorial.
The below steps will detail how to get the sample databases and how to attach them to SQL server to start working with them.
This blog assumes you have a version of SQL server installed if not you can click here for a great tutorial
- Obtain the Databases data files for the version of SQL server you have installed from the CodePlex website here.
These 2 Databases are a great start to learning SQL Server from both a Transactional and Data Warehousing point of view.
- Now that we have downloaded these 2 files we will need to attach them one at a time. First, open SQL Server and connect to your instance.
- Expand the object explorer tree until you can right click on the folder called databases and then left click on Attach…
- Click the Add Button and navigate to and select the .mdf file (This is the database file you downloaded).
- There is one step a lot of people getting started in SQL server often miss. As we have just attached a data file in order for SQL Server to bring the database online, it needs a log file which we don’t have. The trick to this is, if we remove the log file from the Attach Database window, SQL Server will automatically create a log file for us. To do this, simply select the log file and click remove.
- Finally, when you window looks like below simply click ok to attach the database.
- Repeat steps 3 to 6 for the second database file and any others you wish to attach.
- The Databases are now online in SQL server and ready to be used.
And that’s it! You now have an OLTP database and a DW database for BI.
Below are links to some good starting tutorials and some additional databases.Databases
There are many good explanations of ssh key exchange, generating ssh keys, and using ssh keys. My favorite is a digitalocean.com writeup. The net, net of the writeup is that you generate a public and private key using ssh-keygen or putty-gen and upload the public file to the ~user/.ssh/authorized_keys location for that user. The following scripts should work on an Azure, Amazon, and Oracle Linux instance created in the compute shapes. The idea is that we initially created a virtual machine with the cloud vendor and the account that we created with the VM is not our end user but our cloud administrator. The next level of security is to create a new user and give them permissions to execute what they want to execute on this machine. For example, in the Oracle Database as a Service images there are two users created by default; oracle and opc. The oracle user has the rights to execute everything related to sqlplus, access the file systems where the database and backups are located, and everything related to the ora user. The opc user has sudo rights so that they can execute root scripts, add software packages, apply patches, and other things. The two users have different access rights and administration privileges. In this blog we are going to look at creating a third user so that we can have someone like a backup administrator login and copy backups to tape or a disk at another data center. To do this you need to execute the following instructions.
sudo useradd backupadmin -g dba sudo mkdir ~backupadmin/.ssh sudo cp ~oracle/.ssh/authorized_keys ~backupadmin/.ssh sudo chown -R backupadmin:dba ~backupadmin sudo chmod 700 ~backupadmin/.ssh
Let's walk through what we did. First we create a new user called backupadmin. We add this user to the dba group so that they can perform dba functions that are given to the dba group. If the oracle user is part of a different group then they need to be added to that group and not the dba group. Next we create a hidden directory in the backupadmin directory called .ssh. The dot in front of the file denotes that we don't want this listed with the typical ls command. The sshd program will by default look in this directory for authorized keys and known hosts. Next we copy a known authorized_keys file into the new backupadmin .ssh directory so that we can present a private key to the operating system as the backupadmin to login. The last two commands are setting the ownership and permissions on the new .ssh directory and all files under it so that backupadmin can read and write this directory and no one else can. The chown sets ownership to backupadmin and the -R says do everything from that directory down to the same ownership. While we are doing this we also set the group permissions on all files to the group dba. The final command sets permissions on the .ssh directory to read, write, and execute for the owner of the directory only. The zeros remove permissions for the group and world.
In our example we are going to show how to access a Linux server from Azure and modify the permissions. First we go to the portal.azure.com site and login. We then look at the virtual machines that we have created and access the Linux VM that we want to change permissions for. When we created the initial virtual machine we selected ssh access and uploaded a public key. In this example we created the account pshuff as the initial login. This account is created automatically for us and is given sudo rights. This would be our cloud admin account. We present the same ssh keys for all virtual machines that we create and can copy these keys or upload other keys for other users. Best practice would be to upload new keys and not replicate the cloud admin keys to new users as we showed above.
From the portal we get the ip address of the Linux server. In this example it is 126.96.36.199. We open up putty from Windows, load the 2016.ppk key that corresponds to the 2016.pub key that we initialized the pshuff account with. When asked for a user to authenticate with we login as pshuff. If this were an Oracle Compute Service instance we would login as opc since this is the default account created and we want sudo access. To login as backupadmin we open putty and load the ppk associated with this account.
When asked for what account to login as we type in backupadmin and can connect to the Linux system using the public/private key that we initialized.
If we examine the public key it is a series of randomly generated text values. To revoke the users access to the system we change the authorized_keys file to a different key. The pub file looks like
if we open it in wordpad on Windows. This is the file that we uploaded when we created the virtual machine.
To deny access to backupadmin (in the case of someone leaving the organization or moving to another group) all we have to do is edit the authorized_keys file as root and delete this public key. We can insert a different key with a copy and paste operation allowing us to rotate keys. Commercial software like key vaults and key management systems allow you to do this from a central control point and update/rotate keys on a regular basis.
In summary, best practices are to upload a key per user and rotate them on a regular basis. Accounts should be created with ssh keys and not password access. Rather than copying the keys from an existing account it would be an upload and an edit. Access can be revoked by the root user by removing the keys or from an automated key management system.
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A Guest Post by Christine Skalkotos, Oracle Program Management (pictured left)
Oracle’s Modern Service Experience 2016 is again lighting up fabulous Las Vegas April 26-28, and we’re betting this will be our best event yet. From the speaker lineup and session catalog to the networking experiences and Customer Appreciation Event, we’re going “all in,” and we hope you’ll join us. Here are five reasons you should head to Las Vegas this April for the Modern Service Experience:
1. In-Depth Service Content
The Modern Service Experience features more than 40 sessions led by customer service experts, analysts, and top brands. Through the keynotes, general sessions and breakouts, you’ll hear about current and future trends in customer service and will walk away inspired and ready to turn your insights into actions. Take a look at the just-launched conference program to see the impressive speaker lineup.
The conference program features content for everyone regardless of your role. Attend sessions in the following tracks:
- Cross-Channel Contact Center
- Field Service Management
- Oracle Policy Management
- Web Customer Service
- Customer Experience
In addition, you’ll hear about Oracle Service Cloud’s vision and product roadmap. Within the breakouts, you’ll learn about new product functionality and how to get the most out of your implementation. In the expo hall, you’ll have the opportunity to participate in interactive demos.
2. One-of-a-Kind Networking
In addition to hearing best practices and soaking up insights from session and keynote speakers, some of the best information you’ll gather at the Modern Service Experience will come from your peers. Customer service leaders from some of the world’s top brands are attending the Modern Service Experience. The conference provides many opportunities to network with peers, as well as with Oracle product experts, sales, executives, and partners.
Before you head to Las Vegas, see who else is attending and start broadening your network through social media. Use the hashtag #ServiceX16, and join the conversation.
3. Thought Leaders & Inspiring Speakers
Attend the Modern Service Experience to hear from some of the leading minds in modern customer service. The featured speaker lineup includes:
- Mark Hurd, CEO, Oracle
- Jean-Claude Porretti, Customer Care Worldwide Manager, Peugeot Citroën
- Scott McBain, Manager, Application Development, Overhead Door Corporation
- Sara Knetzger, Applications Administrator, Corporate Applications, WageWorks
- Ian Jacobs, Senior Analyst Serving Application Development & Delivery Professionals, Forrester Research
- Kate Leggett, VP, Principal Analyst Serving Application Development & Delivery Professionals, Forrester Research
- Ray Wang, Principal Analyst, Founder, and Chairman, Constellation Research, Inc.
- Denis Pombriant, founder, managing principal, Beagle Research
4. More Opportunities for Increasing Your Knowledge
First, take advantage of our pre-conference workshops. You’ll probably have to roll the dice to decide which of the three you’ll attend: Get Prepared for the Knowledge-Centered Support (KCS) Practices v5 Certification, Head off to the Races with Agent Desktop Automation, and Step off the Beaten Path with Oracle Service Cloud Reporting.
Next, schedule time with an Oracle Service Cloud mastermind and get answers to your burning questions as part of the Ask the Experts program (sponsored by Oracle Gold Partner Helix).
Last, connect with your peers during lunch and participate in our birds of a feather program around popular topics.
5. Celebrate with Your Fellow Customers
To show our appreciation for our customers, we’re hosting a night of food, drinks, and amazing entertainment. Goo Goo Dolls will play a private concert for attendees at the MGM Grand Arena on Wednesday evening. The Oracle Customer Appreciation Event rarely disappoints—don’t miss it.
Finally, at 1 p.m. on Thursday April 26, during our annual awards ceremony, we’ll recognize leading organizations and individuals in the customer service space, highlighting their impressive stories about innovation and differentiation. Guaranteed, you’ll leave motivated and energized.
What did last year’s customers have to say?
"Oracle Modern Service Experience 2015 was a top-notch event that provided me with the opportunity to learn about new Oracle Service Cloud capabilities and connected me with federal and private sector peers who have since influenced my direction as the Air Force Reserve's Chief Digital Officer, enabling me to drive the organization to a new level of innovation and efficiency this past year." – Lt Col Michael Ortiz, HQ Air Reserve Personnel Center
"The Modern Service Experience is a must for customers looking to maximize their effectiveness with Oracle Service Cloud." – Michael Morris, Match.com
See you in Las Vegas!
We’ve all encountered a situation when you want to check a simple query or syntax for your SQL and don’t have a database around. Of course, most of us have at least a virtual machine for that, but it takes time to fire it up, and if you work from battery, it can leave you without power pretty quickly. Some time ago, Oracle began to offer a new service called “Oracle Live SQL” . It provides you with the ability to test a sql query, procedure or function, and have a code library containing a lot of examples and scripts. Additionally, you can store your own private scripts to re-execute them later. It’s a really great online tool, but it lacks some features. I’ve tried to check the execution plan for my query but, unfortunately, it didn’t work:
explain plan for select * from test_tab_1 where pk_id<10; ORA-02402: PLAN_TABLE not found
So, what could we do to make it work? The workaround is not perfect, but it works and can be used in some cases. We need to create our own plan table using script from an installed Oracle database home $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlxplan.sql. We can open the file and copy the statement to create plan table to SQL worksheet in the Live SQL. And you can save the script in Live SQL code library, and make it private to reuse it later because you will need to recreate the table every time when you login to your environment again. So far so good. Is it enough? Let’s check.
explain plan for select * from test_tab_1 where pk_id<10; Statement processed. select * from table(dbms_xplan.display); PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT ERROR: an uncaught error in function display has happened; please contact Oracle support Please provide also a DMP file of the used plan table PLAN_TABLE ORA-00904: DBMS_XPLAN_TYPE_TABLE: invalid identifier
Ok, the package doesn’t work. I tried to create the types in my schema but it didn’t work. So far the dbms_xplan is not going to work for us and we have to request the information directly from our plan table. It is maybe not so convenient, but it give us enough and, don’t forget, you can save your script and just reuse it later. You don’t need to memorize the queries. Here is a simple example of how to get information about your last executed query from the plan table:
SELECT parent_id,id, operation,plan_id,operation,options,object_name,object_type,cardinality,cost from plan_table where plan_id in (select max(plan_id) from plan_table) order by 2; PARENT_ID ID OPERATION PLAN_ID OPERATION OPTIONS OBJECT_NAME OBJECT_TYPE CARDINALITY COST - 0 SELECT STATEMENT 268 SELECT STATEMENT - - - 9 49 0 1 TABLE ACCESS 268 TABLE ACCESS FULL TEST_TAB_1 TABLE 9 49 [/lang] I tried a hierarchical query but didn't find it too useful in the Live SQL environment. Also you may want to put unique identifier for your query to more easily find it in the plan_table. explain plan set statement_id='123qwerty' into plan_table for select * from test_tab_1 where pk_id<10; SELECT parent_id,id, operation,plan_id,operation,options,object_name,object_type,cardinality,cost from plan_table where statement_id='123qwerty' order by id; PARENT_ID ID OPERATION PLAN_ID OPERATION OPTIONS OBJECT_NAME OBJECT_TYPE CARDINALITY COST - 0 SELECT STATEMENT 272 SELECT STATEMENT - - - 9 3 0 1 TABLE ACCESS 272 TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID BATCHED TEST_TAB_1 TABLE 9 3 1 2 INDEX 272 INDEX RANGE SCAN TEST_TAB_1_PK INDEX 9 2
Now I have my plan_table script and query saved in the Live SQL and reuse them when I want to check the plan for my query. I posted the feedback about the ability to use dbms_xplan and Oracle representative replied to me promptly and assured they are already working implementing dbms_xplan feature and many others including ability to run only selected SQL statement in the SQL worksheet (like we do it in SQLdeveloper). It sounds really good and promising and is going to make the service even better. Stay tuned.
tl;dr; Latest Cassandra 2.1.xLong version:
A while ago, Eventbrite wrote:
“You should not deploy a Cassandra version X.Y.Z to production where Z <= 5.” (Full post).
And, in general, it is still valid up until today! Why “in general“? That post is old, and Cassandra has moved a lot since them. So we can get a different set of sentences:
- “If you want to be rock solid in Production, follow DSE releases.” – Release list
- “If you need the features, pick latest 2.2.x” – 2.2 Features
- “If you don’t mind facing serious bugs and contribute to the development pick 3.x” – Read this before picking 3.x for Production
Just for the ones that don’t want follow the links, and still pick 3.x for production use, read this:
“Under normal conditions, we will NOT release 3.x.y stability releases for x > 0. That is, we will have a traditional 3.0.y stability series, but the odd-numbered bugfix-only releases will fill that role for the tick-tock series — recognizing that occasionally we will need to be flexible enough to release an emergency fix in the case of a critical bug or security vulnerability.
We do recognize that it will take some time for tick-tock releases to deliver production-level stability, which is why we will continue to deliver 2.2.y and 3.0.y bugfix releases. (But if we do demonstrate that tick-tock can deliver the stability we want, there will be no need for a 4.0.y bugfix series, only 4.x tick-tock.)”What about end of life?
Well, it is about stability, there are still a lot of clusters out there running 1.x and 2.0.x. And since it is an open source software, you can always search in the community or even contribute.
If you still have doubts about which version, you can always contact us!
An all-star cast will be speaking at the in Modern Finance Experience in Chicago this week (April 6-7), including journalist and best-selling author Michael Lewis and Oracle CEOs Safra Catz and Mark Hurd. The theme of the conference is Creating Value in the Digital Age.
In this OracleVoice article leading up to the event, Oracle VP Karen dela Torre explains why 10- or 20-year-old systems are ill suited for the digital economy. She then lists 15 reasons why now is the time for finance to move to the cloud. Here are just a few:
- New business models require new capabilities (i.e. KPIs, data models, sentiment analysis)
- Subscription billing and revenue recognition standards require new functionality
- Rapid growth requires systems that can quickly scale
- Consolidation, standardization, and rationalization is easier on the cloud
Even to risk-averse finance executives, the call for change will be hard to ignore.
Oracle writer Margaret Harrist also writes about the digital age in a Forbes article that focuses on the not-so-well-known role of finance in the customer experience. Matt Stirrup, Oracle VP of Finance, states that leading finance organizations are looking at the business from the customer’s perspective and recommending changes to the business model or performance measures. Finance may just be the secret sauce to winning in the digital economy.
Download sample application - ViewCriteriaModeApp.zip. JobsView in sample application is set with query execution mode for View Criteria to Both:
I'm using JobsView in EmployeesView through View Accessor. If data from another VO is required, you can fetch it through View Accessor. View Accessor is configured with View Criteria, this means it will be automatically filtered (we only need to set Bind Variable value):
Employees VO contains custom method, where View Accessor is referenced. I'm creating new row and executing query with bind variable (primary key for newly created row). View Criteria is set to execution mode Both, this allows to retrieve newly created row (not commited yet) after search:
View Criteria execution mode Both is useful, when we want to search without loosing newly created rows.
By Michael FeldsteinMore Posts (1068)
Those of you subscribed to the site by email may have noticed that you didn’t get anything in the last 24 hours. (Or maybe you didn’t notice, since the email never came.) We are aware of the problem. The new system sends a message once a day and is next scheduled to send an email digest every morning at 4 AM Eastern Time. For whatever reason, it did not engage this morning, but we believe that it is working correctly now. You should get something in your inbox that includes this post tomorrow morning. Obviously, if you are reading this by email, then all is well.
Thanks for your patience as we work out the kinks in the new system.
His name is Alfred Russel Wallace, he is one of my heroes, and I offer below the "real story" for your reading pleasure.
One of the things I really love about this story is the way Darwin and Wallace respected each other, and did right by each other. We all have a lot to learn from their integrity and compassion.
Alfred Russel Wallace and Natural Selection: the Real Story
By Dr George Beccaloni, Director of the Wallace Correspondence Project, March 2013
Alfred Russel Wallace OM, LLD, DCL, FRS, FLS was born near Usk, Monmouthshire, England (now part of Wales) on January 8th, 1823. Serious family financial problems forced him to leave school aged only fourteen and a few months later he took a job as a trainee land surveyor with his elder brother William. This work involved extensive trekking through the English and Welsh countryside and it was then that his interest in natural history developed.
Whilst living in Neath, Wales, in 1845 Wallace read Robert Chambers' extremely popular and anonymously published book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation and became fascinated by the controversial idea that living things had evolved from earlier forms. So interested in the subject did he become that he suggested to his close friend Henry Walter Bates that they travel to the Amazon to collect and study animals and plants, with the goal of understanding how evolutionary change takes place. They left for Brazil in April 1848, but although Wallace made many important discoveries during his four years in the Amazon Basin, he did not manage to solve the great ‘mystery of mysteries’ of how evolution works.
Wallace returned to England in October 1852, after surviving a disastrous shipwreck which destroyed all the thousands of natural history specimens he had painstakingly collected during the last two and most interesting years of his trip. Undaunted, in 1854 he set off on another expedition, this time to the Malay Archipelago (Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia), where he would spend eight years travelling, collecting, writing, and thinking about evolution. He visited every important island in the archipelago and sent back 110,000 insects, 7,500 shells, 8,050 bird skins, and 410 mammal and reptile specimens, including probably more than five thousand species new to science.
In Sarawak, Borneo, in February 1855, Wallace produced one of the most important papers written about evolution up until that time1. In it he proposed a ‘law’ which stated that "Every species has come into existence coincident both in time and space with a pre-existing closely allied species". He described the affinities (relationships) between species as being “...as intricate as the twigs of a gnarled oak or the vascular system of the human body” with “...the stem and main branches being represented by extinct species...” and the “...vast mass of limbs and boughs and minute twigs and scattered leaves...” living species. The eminent geologist and creationist Charles Lyell was so struck by Wallace’s paper that in November 1855, soon after reading it, he began a ‘species notebook’ in which he started to contemplate the possibility of evolution for the first time.
In April 1856 Lyell visited Charles Darwin at Down House in Kent, and Darwin confided that for the past twenty years he had been secretly working on a theory (natural selection) which neatly explained how evolutionary change takes place. Not long afterwards, Lyell sent Darwin a letter urging him to publish before someone beat him to it (he probably had Wallace in mind), so in May 1856, Darwin, heeding this advice, began to write a ‘sketch’ of his ideas for publication.
Finding this unsatisfactory, Darwin abandoned it in about October 1856 and instead began working on an extensive book on the subject.
The idea of natural selection came to Wallace during an attack of fever whilst he was on a remote Indonesian island in February 1858 (it is unclear whether this epiphany happened on Ternate or neighbouring Gilolo (Halmahera)). As soon as he had sufficient strength, he wrote a detailed essay explaining his theory and sent it together with a covering letter to Darwin, who he knew from earlier correspondence, was deeply interested in the subject of species transmutation (as evolution was then called).
Wallace asked Darwin to pass the essay on to Lyell (who Wallace did not know), if Darwin thought it sufficiently novel and interesting. Darwin had mentioned in an earlier letter to Wallace that Lyell had found his 1855 paper noteworthy and Wallace must have thought that Lyell would be interested to learn about his new theory, since it neatly explained the ‘law’ which Wallace had proposed in that paper.
Darwin, having formulated natural selection years earlier, was horrified when he received Wallace’s essay and immediately wrote an anguished letter to Lyell asking for advice on what he should do. "I never saw a more striking coincidence. If Wallace had my M.S. sketch written out in 1842 he could not have made a better short abstract! ... So all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed." he exclaimed2. Lyell teamed up with another of Darwin's close friends, Joseph Hooker, and rather than attempting to seek Wallace's permission, they decided instead to present his essay plus two excerpts from Darwin’s writings on the subject (which had never been intended for publication3) to a meeting of the Linnean Society of London on July 1st 1858. The public presentation of Wallace's essay took place a mere 14 days after its arrival in England.
Darwin and Wallace's musings on natural selection were published in the Society’s journal in August that year under the title “On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; And On the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection”. Darwin's contributions were placed before Wallace's essay, thus emphasising his priority to the idea4. Hooker had sent Darwin the proofs to correct and had told him to make any alterations he wanted5, and although he made a large number of changes to the text he had written, he chose not to alter Lyell and Hooker’s arrangement of his and Wallace’s contributions.
Lyell and Hooker stated in their introduction to the Darwin-Wallace paper that “...both authors...[have]...unreservedly placed their papers in our hands...”, but this is patently untrue since Wallace had said nothing about publication in the covering letter he had sent to Darwin6. Wallace later grumbled that his essay “...was printed without my knowledge, and of course without any correction of proofs...”7
As a result of this ethically questionable episode8, Darwin stopped work on his big book on evolution and instead rushed to produce an ‘abstract’ of what he had written so far. This was published fifteen months later in November 1859 as On the Origin of Species: a book which Wallace later magnanimously remarked would “...live as long as the "Principia" of Newton.”9
In spite of the theory’s traumatic birth, Darwin and Wallace developed a genuine admiration and respect for one another. Wallace frequently stressed that Darwin had a stronger claim to the idea of natural selection, and he even named one of his most important books on the subject Darwinism! Wallace spent the rest of his long life explaining, developing and defending natural selection, as well as working on a very wide variety of other (sometimes controversial) subjects. He wrote more than 1000 articles and 22 books, including The Malay Archipelago and The Geographical Distribution of Animals. By the time of his death in 1913, he was one of the world's most famous people.
During Wallace’s lifetime the theory of natural selection was often referred to as the Darwin- Wallace theory and the highest possible honours were bestowed on him for his role as its co- discoverer. These include the Darwin–Wallace and Linnean Gold Medals of the Linnean Society of London; the Copley, Darwin and Royal Medals of the Royal Society (Britain's premier scientific body); and the Order of Merit (awarded by the ruling Monarch as the highest civilian honour of Great Britain). It was only in the 20th Century that Wallace’s star dimmed while Darwin’s burned ever more brightly.
So why then did this happen?
The reason may be as follows: in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, natural selection as an explanation for evolutionary change became unpopular, with most biologists adopting alternative theories such as neo-Lamarckism, orthogenesis, or the mutation theory. It was only with the modern evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and ’40s that it became widely accepted that natural selection is indeed the primary driving force of evolution. By then, however, the history of its discovery had largely been forgotten and many wrongly assumed that the idea had first been published in Darwin’s On the Origin of Species. Thanks to the so-called ‘Darwin Industry’ of recent decades, Darwin’s fame has increased exponentially, eclipsing the important contributions of his contemporaries, like Wallace. A more balanced, accurate and detailed history of the discovery of what has been referred to as “...arguably the most momentous idea ever to occur to a human mind” is long overdue.
1. Wallace, A. R. 1855. On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 16 (2nd series): 184-196.
2. Letter from Darwin to Charles Lyell dated 18th [June 1858] (Darwin Correspondence Database, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2285 accessed 20/01/2013).
3. These were an extract from Darwin’s unpublished essay on evolution of 1844, plus the enclosure from a letter dated 5th September 1857, which Darwin had written to the American botanist Asa Gray.
4. Publishing another person’s work without their agreement was as unacceptable then as it is today. Publishing someone’s novel theory without their consent, prefixed by material designed to give priority of the idea to someone else is ethically highly questionable: Wallace should have been consulted first! Fortunately for Darwin and his supporters, Wallace appeared to be pleased by what has been called the ‘delicate arrangement’.
5. In a letter from Joseph Hooker to Darwin dated 13th and 15th July 1858 (Darwin Correspondence Database, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2307 accessed 20/01/2013), Hooker stated " I send the proofs from Linnæan Socy— Make any alterations you please..."
6. In a letter from Darwin to Charles Lyell dated 18th [June 1858] (Darwin Correspondence Database, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2285 accessed 20/01/2013), Darwin, who was referring to Wallace's essay, says "Please return me the M.S. [manuscript] which he does not say he wishes me to publish..." and in a letter from Darwin to Charles Lyell dated [25th June 1858] (Darwin Correspondence Database, http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/entry-2294 accessed 20/01/2013), Darwin states that "Wallace says nothing about publication..."
7. Letter from Wallace to A. B. Meyer dated 22nd November 1869 cited in Meyer, A. B. 1895. How was Wallace led to the discovery of natural selection? Nature, 52(1348): 415.
8. See Rachels, J. 1986. Darwin's moral lapse. National Forum: 22-24 (pdf available at http://www.jamesrachels.org/DML.pdf)
9. Letter from Wallace to George Silk dated 1st September 1860 (WCP373 in Beccaloni, G. W. (Ed.). 2012. Wallace Letters Online www.nhm.ac.uk/wallacelettersonline [accessed 20/01/2013])
Please cite this article as: Beccaloni, G. W. 2013. Alfred Russel Wallace and Natural Selection: the Real Story. <http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/tv/junglehero/alfred-wallace-biography.pdf>
This article is a slightly modified version of the introduction by George Beccaloni to the following privately published book: Preston, T. (Ed.). 2013. The Letter from Ternate. UK: TimPress. 96 pp.
Update: The video recording of this session is here:
Slides are here.
Other videos are available at Gluent video collection.
It’s time to announce the 2nd episode of the Gluent New World webinar series!
The Gluent New World webinar series is about modern data management: architectural trends in enterprise IT and technical fundamentals behind them.
GNW02: SQL-on-Hadoop : A bit of History, Current State-of-the-Art, and Looking towards the Future
- This GNW episode is presented by no other than Mark Rittman, the co-founder & CTO of Rittman Mead and an all-around guru of enterprise BI!
- Tue, Apr 19, 2016 12:00 PM – 1:15 PM CDT
Hadoop and NoSQL platforms initially focused on Java developers and slow but massively-scalable MapReduce jobs as an alternative to high-end but limited-scale analytics RDBMS engines. Apache Hive opened-up Hadoop to non-programmers by adding a SQL query engine and relational-style metadata layered over raw HDFS storage, and since then open-source initiatives such as Hive Stinger, Cloudera Impala and Apache Drill along with proprietary solutions from closed-source vendors have extended SQL-on-Hadoop’s capabilities into areas such as low-latency ad-hoc queries, ACID-compliant transactions and schema-less data discovery – at massive scale and with compelling economics.
In this session we’ll focus on technical foundations around SQL-on-Hadoop, first reviewing the basic platform Apache Hive provides and then looking in more detail at how ad-hoc querying, ACID-compliant transactions and data discovery engines work along with more specialised underlying storage that each now work best with – and we’ll take a look to the future to see how SQL querying, data integration and analytics are likely to come together in the next five years to make Hadoop the default platform running mixed old-world/new-world analytics workloads.
See you soon!
NB! If you want to move to the "New World" - offload your data and workloads to Hadoop, without having to re-write your existing applications - check out Gluent. We are making history! ;-)Related Posts